Hydrogen in India is primarily used as an industrial feedstock in manufacturing ammonia-based fertilizers, petroleum refining processes and methanol. Although the current use cases are dominated within the refining and ammonia sectors, it is expected that additional demand would arise from other segments, including steel, cement, heavy mobility and the power sector. To develop a robust hydrogen economy, policymakers must understand the value chain of hydrogen – right from production to its diverse applications – including production technologies, storage, transport and distribution, infrastructure (pipelines, ports, refuelling stations), vehicular applications and electricity/gas grids. By 2030, India is expected to increase its hydrogen demand by several times across multiple sectors. Analyzing the current and emerging demand, the pace of transition to a green hydrogen-based economy will be based on two key parameters: the ease and the cost of adoption. The earliest adoption of green hydrogen is expected in refining, fertilizer production & chemical manufacturing – and in the coming decade, majority of the incremental hydrogen capacity addition could be driven by green hydrogen. Additionally, import substitution could drive large green hydrogen capacity addition (feeding into low carbon ammonia production) in sectors that import ammonia, primarily fertilizers.
Green Hydrogen for India- A Finance and Policy Perspective: Challenges & Opportunities