The world is undergoing an immense transition in one of the most key aspects governing our lives. It is in the generation, availability and use of energy which supports all dimensions of our existence. Food production, processing and delivery, infrastructure development, clothing industry, transportation, healthcare and any other activity crucial for our sustenance depends on energy. Over time we have become used to depending on fossil fuels for providing us this key supporting ingredient. It is this core enabler, which is undergoing transition. This transition has been made possible, in part due to the development of advanced technologies for energy storage and conversion. In this series of 4 reports, we attempt to cover all the major technologies which are either currently commercially available or those which are in the final development stages and will be commercially manufactured at scale in the next 3-5 years. All technologies for energy storage and conversion are constantly evolving and improving in performance owing to the ongoing efforts of the global academic and industrial community.
In the current report which is the 2nd in this series of reports, we cover all the electrochemical technologies (except Li-ion and Advanced lead acid) which are of interest for stationary storage applications. These applications can range from small home backup systems to large grid storage installations for frequency regulation, industrial UPS systems and long duration storage of renewable energy.
We wish that through this report we are able to provide specific and to-the-point information to a wide range of audience who are interested in learning about these new technologies. The review is prepared keeping in mind that the readers may be from very different backgrounds and we hope that the concepts and information presented will help all decisions makers from industry as well as from the government.
Table of Contents
- Motivation and Objectives of this Technology Review
- Executive Summary
- Long duration and short duration applications
- Renewable backup, frequency regulation, solar and wind smoothing, UPS, microgrids
- Application specific requirements of Energy Storage Technologies
- Existing and next generation chemistries
- System design and Performance characteristics
- Price breakdown of VRB systems: Vanadium requirement
- Global deployments of Flow Batteries
- Product specifications and application suitability
- Construction and design
- Historical development and improvements
- Performance characteristics and Applications
- Company offerings and application case studies
- Historical developments and improvements
- System design and performance characteristics
- Company offerings and applications
- Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies
- SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells)
- PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells)
- PEMFC (Hydrogen Fuel Cells)
- PEM Electrolyzers: Green Hydrogen Production
- Fuel cells vs. Conventional power generation
Key questions the report answers
- Which technologies are suitable for stationary storage applications and what improvements can be expected in the next 3-5 years?
- Which technologies are on the horizon and will be commercially manufactured and available soon?
- How are these technologies superior in performance to existing storage solutions?
- What are the performance characteristics of large scale storage technologies such as flow batteries, NAS and Zn-air batteries?
- What are the recent developments in Fuel cell technologies and how do the different types of fuel cells differ in performance?