Energy Storage Applications

Energy Storage Technologies can have wide applications across the grid, from Generation, Transmission and Distribution as well as behind the meter applications particularly for Commercial & Industrial (C&I) customers.

Electrochemical Energy Storage Non-Electrochemical Energy Storage

Energy Storage technologies can be grouped as electrochemical and non-electrochemical EES technologies. The most common EES technologies are:

  • Advanced Lead Acid Battery
  • Flow Batteries
    • Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB)
    • Zinc Bromine Battery (ZnBr)
    • Other Redox flow batteries
  • Lithium Ion (Li-ion) Battery
    • Li Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)
    • Li Titanate (LT)
    • Li- Cobalt Oxide (LCO)
    • Li- Manganese Oxide (LMO)
    • Li-Nickel manganese Cobalt (NMC)
    • Li Polymer
    • Li Air
    • Other Li based chemistries
  • Nickel based batteries
    • Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery
    • Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMh) Battery
    • Nickel Zinc (NiZn)battery
  • Sodium based batteries
    • Sodium-Sulfur battery (NaS)
    • Sodium metal Halide battery
    • Sodium Ion battery
  • Other emerging electrochemistry’s
    • Metal Air
  • Pumped Hydroelectric
    • Conventional
    • Under ground
  • Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
    • Conventional
    • Adiabatic
    • Isothermal
    • Under water
  • Thermal Storage
    • Heat
    • Cold / Ice
  • Gravity based storage systems
  • Flywheel
  • Ultra-Capacitor
  • Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)

Chart below shows a comparison of energy and power rating of various storage technologies deployed as of 2008.


Although all of these technologies are viable for utility-scale systems, some are believed to have more potential than others. Following chart shows, comparison of various energy storage technologies based on energy vs power rating of currently installed systems.